Simla Agreement 1972 In Urdu Pdf

As part of the agreement, the two nations, India and Pakistan, had agreed to refrain from threats and violence in violation of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. The agreement emphasizes respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of the other. It also mentions non-interference in the internal affairs of the other and hostile propaganda. Although the terms “right to self-determination” are absent from the agreement, they are implicit in Section I of the agreement, which states that “the principles and objectives of the UN Charter govern relations between the two countries.” The consultation of the Charter of the United Nations indicates that Articles 1 and 2 set out the objectives and principles. Article 1 of the UN Charter is “equal rights and self-determination of peoples” and Article 2 of the UN Charter deals with “the prohibition of the threat or use of force in international relations.” In this way, this subsection has a strong influence on the Kashmir issue, particularly with regard to the points of Kashmir`s right to self-determination and the territorial integrity of Kashmir. At this point, two points can be considered important. First, if the objective part of the agreement states that the two signatory governments are committed to “ending the conflict and confrontation that have so far affected their relations”, this does not mean the negition of the Kachmiris` right to self-determination. Second, this does not mean that they do so at the expense of the Kachmiris` right to self-determination, when the objective part of the agreement states that the two signatory countries “work to promote a friendly and harmonious relationship to bring peace to the subcontinent”. In short, despite the measures taken by the two signatory states, the Kashmiris` right to self-determination is intact, unlivable and irrefutable. The summit conference between Bhutto and Indra Gandhi opened in Simla on the agreed date. The Simla Agreement Conference was held from June 28 to July 2, 1972. The immediate outcome of the 1971 war between India and Pakistan was the change of government in Pakistan and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, leader of the majority party of West Pakistan, took power on 20 December 1971. The 1971 war led to the dismemberment of East Pakistan.

Pakistan had lost nearly 54% of its population, and 93,000 of its soldiers and civilians were in possession of India. That is why the first challenges of the new government should resolve the ausdematon state of emergency and the problem of prisoners of war as quickly as possible. After the war, India and Pakistan were in direct contact through diplomatic channels, and both recognized the need to begin negotiations. From 12 January 1972 to 30 April 1972, the two countries were willing to engage in dialogue through press releases and discussions began. Finally, it was agreed that talks between Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indra Gandhi would begin on 28 June 1972. The Delhi Agreement on the Return of War and Civilian Internees is a tripartite agreement between these states, signed on 28 August 1973. The agreement was signed by Kamal Hossain, the Foreign Minister of the Government of Bangladesh, Sardar Swaran Singh, the Indian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Aziz Ahmed, Minister of State for Defence and Foreign Affairs of the Pakistani government. [9] [10] [11] The summit conference between Bhutto and Indra Gandhi opened in Simla on the decided date.

The summit conference was held from June 28 to July 2, 1972.